Florence Nightingale: The Pioneer of Modern Nursing


Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale was born on May 12, 1820 into an affluent British family. She grew up in luxury and privilege, wearing the finest clothes, attending top schools, and being served by hired help. She attended elaborate balls and travelled the world. But she quickly grew tired of, what she considered to be, her meaningless life.

From a young age, Nightingale harbored a passion for philanthropy, serving poor and ill people neighboring her family’s estate. As soon she turned 16, she realized that nursing was her calling in life. When she shared her purpose with her parents, they were not pleased, as her plans deviated from their norm. In the Victorian era, girls of her age were expected to marry promising suitors, while Nightingale wanted to engage in nursing, which was deemed a lowly profession by the upper social class. 

Despite her family’s objection, Nightingale decided to pursue nursing. In 1844, she enrolled in Lutheran Hospital of Pastor Fliedner in Kaiserwerth, Germany, as a student of nursing. During her time there, she learned fundamental nursing skills, the significance of patient observation, and the importance of hospital organizational skills.

Around 1855, Nightingale, went to serve at the British Army hospital in Turkey during Crimean war, taking along a group of nurses that she recruited and trained.

The hospital was infamous for its unsanitary conditions. Nightingale implemented measures to improve sanitation, hygiene, and cleanliness. She raised funds to purchase desperately needed hospital supplies. She prepared and served nutritious meals. She spoke to patients kindly and with respect. However, the legend of her singing to the sick patients in the hospitals at night was not true and she did not acquire her name by singing like the bird Nightingale. Nightingale was really her last name.

Because of Nightingale’s methods, the hospital care improved and the death rates dropped at the army hospital. Her efforts were recognized and she was congratulated by Queen Victoria, who also appointed her as the Nursing Superintendent of the Army hospitals.

After returning to London two years later, Florence Nightingale had earned the title of a national hero. She opened a nursing school and started training nurses. She spent the rest of her life on reforming the healthcare not only in England, but also throughout the world. However, as fate had it, by the age of 40, she became an invalid herself. Despite her ailment, she continued to make advancements in nursing and public health through books, letters and public persuasion. Her most noted work is Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not.

After over 150 years, Florence Nightingale is still fondly remembered for her significant contributions to public health. Today, she is regarded and celebrated as the pioneer of modern nursing. 


Author: Amita Vadlamudi


Nobel Peace Prize

Nobel Peace Prize

One of the 5 Nobel Prizes established by Swedish armaments manufacturer, inventor, and industrialist, Alfred Nobel, was called the Nobel Peace Prize. Since the early 90’s, this prize has been awarded by a 5-member Norwegian Nobel Committee in Oslo City Hall, on 10th December every year (the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death).

Who Is the Nobel Peace Prize Awarded To?

Since December of 1901 (119 years ago), the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded on an annual basis (with a few exceptions) to those who have done the most or the best work that inspired togetherness between nations.

In addition to this, this prestigious award is also deserved by those who helped reduce or abolish standing armies while promoting or holding peace congresses. Of course, due to the political nature of this prize, most awards granted throughout history were subject to numerous controversies.

How Are the Nobel Peace Prize Winners Nominated?

In the words of Alfred Nobel, the Peace Prize will be awarded to people who, “shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses”.

Since World War 2, the Nobel Peace Prize has been exclusively reserved for four main areas of honor:

  • Efforts related to human rights and democracy
  • Peace negotiations
  • Arms control and disarmament
  • Efforts that are aimed towards creating a more peaceful and better organized world

Bonus: For 2020, there are 318 candidates for the Nobel Peace Prize of which 107 are organizations and 211 individuals. 318 nominations also happen to be the 4th highest number of candidates ever. The record for highest number of candidates was set in 2016 to as high as 376 candidates.

The names of the nominees and nominators, except the winner’s, are not revealed until 50 years have elapsed since the award.

Some of the Most Well-Known Winners in History

  • 2017: The International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)
  • 2013: Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
  • 2012: The European Union
  • 2009: Barack H. Obama
  • 2001: Kofi Annan
  • 1994: Yasser Arafat
  • 1993: Nelson Mandela
  • 1988: The United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces
  • 1984: Desmond Tutu
  • 1979: Mother Teresa


Andrew Carnegie: The Epitome of Philanthropy


History has seen many names that stood out for their philanthropic work, but Andrew Carnegie set new standards with the charitable work he did. In 1889, he articulated  in his notable work, The Gospel of Wealth, in which he stated that personal fortune beyond the amount needed to fulfill one’s own needs should be extended for the community’s benefit.

Hailing from Scotland, Carnegie moved to America in 1848 and went on to establish his business enterprises, leading to the advent of Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901, he sold the company to J.P. Morgan for $480 million. He dedicated the last years of his life distributing this ‘excess wealth’ to the public, as he had previously outlined in his manifesto.


Public Libraries

Andrew Carnegie was always fond of reading, so it is no surprise he wanted to dedicate money to education and reading. He used his wealth to support towns and cities to build over 2000 public libraries.

The Carnegie Library and Museums of Pittsburgh

Carnegie donated $1 million to the establishment of 6 libraries. He also founded the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh. These sister organizations evolved from the Carnegie Institute.

Carnegie Institute of Washington

Established in 1902, this research center hosted some of the world’s most famed researchers.

Carnegie Corporation of New York

He dedicated a handsome sum of $125 million to Carnegie Corporation, established by Carnegie in 1911 in order to support education across America and later in the whole world.

Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie invested $2 million for the establishment of this technical institution in Pittsburg.

The Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland

Carnegie contributed $10 million to this trust established in 1901 to further advancement of Scottish universities and to aid students.

Peace and Culture

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

He founded this body in 1910 with a gift of $10 million. It is dedicated to programs conducting research, education, and discussion on international affairs.

Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs

Founded in 1914, this non-profit organization conducted research in ethics and international affairs.

Carnegie Hall

Carnegie paid the majority of the  sum to construct the Carnegie Hall in the 1890s. Since its establishment, it became one of the most iconic structures in New York.


Please look for Amita Vadlamudi’s other articles related to charitable giving and volunteering within this site.

World Health Organization – Ensuring Global Quality Healthcare

World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to provide quality healthcare for everyone across the globe. Established in 1830, the organization, which is an agency of the United Nations, aims to prevent disasters such as the cholera epidemics that decimated large numbers of populations in 1830 and 1847.

World Health Organization’s History

In response to the Cholera epidemics, the first International Sanitary Conference convened in 1851 in Paris. The political divide among different countries impeded them from making any significant progress during the series of conferences held between 1851 and 1938. The coalition thus dispersed, having achieved only minor gains.

During the 1945 United Nations annual conference, the Chinese, Norwegian, and Brazilian delegates proposed the creation of an International Health Organization. Initially, the delegates failed to get a resolution passed on the matter. Upon the suggestion of then UN Secretary General, Alger Hiss, China lobbied a declaration, which was passed.

The term “International” was later swapped with the term “World” to promote the global perspective that the organization employs. All 51 United Nation countries signed the Constitution for the World Health Organization. 10 other countries also joined on 22nd July 1946. Currently, WHO has 194 member states and over 150 offices worldwide.

Significant Contributions

  • The World Health Organization played an important role in the eradication of small pox from 1958 to 1979.
  • In 1986 WHO launched its global program on HIV/AIDS
  • In 1988, the organization established a Polio Eradication Initiative
  • As of 2012, WHO is immersed in providing leadership in matters related to public health.

Currently, the organization strives to equip the global population with information on how to effectively deal with communicable and non-communicable diseases. It employs multiple resources to ensure development of a system that is well equipped to deal with health emergencies. It aims to improve access to primary healthcare, identify threats and risks, and take precautionary actions to minimize damages.

You can find out more about WHO from their web site, https://www.who.int

You can also read more about WHO’s history and contributions on Wikipedea


Please Look for other articles from Amita Vadlamudi at some of her other web sites:






Salvation Army

The Salvation Army Kettle with the recognizable red shield next to a Salvation Army volunteer ringing the bell and soliciting donations is a familiar site during Christmas season.

Salvation Army is an international evangelical church and one of the world’s most significant non-governmental relief agencies. Its headquarters are in London, England. With a governance system of its own and a practice that slightly deviates from the mainstream doctrine of the church, the Salvation Army is well-known for its relief and charity work across the world.

The Salvation Army is one of the first NGOs to arrive at affected sites after natural or man-made disasters. Over the years, the organization has helped countless individuals rebuild their lives after devastating events and alleviate their suffering.

The Salvation Army was established by William Booth, a Methodist preacher and his wife Catherine Booth in 1865 in London, England. Their intent and mission were to bring salvation to the poor and downtrodden people and to meet their physical and spiritual needs.

Interestingly, Salvation Army’s ministers are called the “officers.” Officers’ ranks include lieutenant, captain, major, colonel and the general. They wear uniform type clothing. Women are given equal right within the church and, in fact, be ordained. Officers are allowed to be married. Husbands and wives often share the same rank and carry out the same assignments.

In 1879, the first meeting of the Salvation Army took place in Philadelphia. The Salvation Army established a strong presence in the United States after being officially welcomed by the White House in 1886 for their extraordinary charitable efforts.

Salvation Army is currently present in 131 countries. As when it was first established, its goals still are to advance the Christian religion, relieve poverty, help the needy and be munificent to mankind as a whole. As such, Salvation Army operates homeless shelters, runs thrift and charity shops, responds with disaster relief and provides humanitarian aid to developing countries.


About The Author:

The author of this article Amita Vadlamudi is a former Information Technology Professional. After her retirement, Amita Vadlamudi has been spending her time volunteering and blogging about charitable causes.



UNICEF, also known as United Nations Children’s Fund and formerly called the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, is a special program funded by the United Nations (UN) to enhance the overall quality of health, nutrition, and education of children around the world trapped in the unending cycle of poverty and inequality.

The nonprofit organization was established by the United Nations General Assembly on 11th December 1946. The purpose of this life-saving program was first established during World War II, when its only aim was to help children in countries devastated by the aftermath of the global conflict. Afterwards, UNICEF members concentrated their fund in less developed countries, providing free emergency food and education to needy children.

Since its creation, UNICEF has successfully improved the general welfare of children in more than 100 countries. In 1950, UNICEF was able to nourish over 6 million children as it provided them with nutritious food and warm clothing. By 1973, UNICEF was successful in combating the deaths caused by consuming unhygienic food and water.

In 1982, the organization launched the Child Survival and Development Revolution, which focused and encouraged four aspects – monitoring children’s growth, supplying vaccinations, promoting breastfeeding, and oral rehydration therapy. By the implementation of these techniques, UNICEF helped improve the lives of children worldwide. By the end of 1993, the life expectancy rate of children was elevated by over 33%. Moreover, child death rates decreased considerably while there was an increase in school attendance. In most underdeveloped countries, living conditions were slightly improved with the consumption of purified water and healthy food.

In 2012, UNICEF’S global distribution of immunization to unfortunate children led to the eradication of life-altering disease, like polio in India. Owing to UNICEF’s efforts, Africa reported zero cases of polio in 2015.

In addition to the healthcare aid of children, UNICEF has moved one step ahead by protecting children from abuse and violence. Counselors hired by the state members of UNICEF have helped recover children exposed to violence at an early age. In 2016, UNICEF extended their help to underprivileged children of Gaza. Due to the organization’s efforts, parents in the region have reported improvement in their children’s mental health.

Amita Vadlamudi supports many charitable organizations and contributes to many charitable causes. Ms. Vadlamudi has written extensively about various charitable organizations and about volunteering ones time. Some of Amita Vadlamudi’s other articles on this website are:


Lend a Hand: Be a Volunteer

Every person in this world has a responsibility to help the unfortunate and to make this world a better place to live. Many people and organizations, indeed for centuries, have done much charitable work and continue to do so.

Though some celebrities may receive significant publicity for their work, there are millions of ordinary people around the world who help the needy in various ways, while not receiving or expecting any recognition. All these people make the world a gentler and kinder place with their generosity.

Financial assistance is not the only way to help others. You can volunteer your time to help out people in many ways. You can volunteer at places like churches, charitable organizations, civic clubs and libraries and schools.

You can help the elderly by doing shopping for them, making minor repairs around their house, or simply being a friendly visitor. There are organizations that facilitate such services. Check out your local listings.

You can help children and teens by being a “big sister” or a “big brother”. Some children need help with their homework or remedial education. Some need guidance and sympathetic ear to talk to. There are organizations that arrange such contacts.

You can help people affected by disasters like fires, floods and medical issues, by offering to clean up or offering transportation, babysitting and light housekeeping services. You can contact humanitarian organizations such as Redcross to see where the help is needed.

Teachers are often overworked and stressed and they can always use some help. You can act as the teacher’s assistant and help them with small chores around the classroom. You may also assist with tasks such as checking papers, disciplining children, and reading stories to them.

You can volunteer at a library shelving books, cleaning up racks and assisting the staff with other necessary tasks.

There are many ways to give your time helping other people. Volunteering is a very satisfying and fulfilling job. It also helps you make friendships. It makes you connect with the world and appreciate your own good fortune.

Connecting with an organization where you can volunteer is easy. You can check out their website, contact them through phone or email and offer your service. Soon you will be on your way to starting a very rewarding journey.

The author of this article Amita Vadlamudi published many more articles on Scribd and Weebly Websites. More information about Ms. Vadlamudi can be found on her AngelList Website.


Peace Corps: Diplomacy in Action

Doves, the peace makers

A typical Peace Corps volunteer can be described as friendly, learned and worldly. Fluent in foreign languages and equipped with great anecdotes from around the world, Peace Corps volunteers stand apart from everyone else. One has to wonder what exactly is the Peace Crops and what does it do to make such refined members.

Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the US government. Officially established in March 1961 during the presidency of John F. Kennedy, the program aims to “promote world peace and friendship” by helping countries in need of trained manpower, creating understanding of American people in other countries as well as appreciation of other countries in America.

Peace Corps volunteers are US citizens over the age of 18 who are deployed to different parts of the world and expected to work with the local schools, non-profits and small scale enterprises. The two current focal points of the program are education and health.

As per recent figures, 41% of volunteers are delegated to educational programs while 20% work in health-related fields. Deployment takes place after three months of training. During their service, volunteers are given an allowance to live in the same lifestyle as the local people. Transportation, medical care and dental care are covered by the program. The term of service is 24 months with an option to request an extension upon completion of term.

From their service, Peace Corps members not only get experience in the socio-economic development sector but also become global citizens committed to making a positive difference. Volunteers gain a newfound appreciation of the world’s diversity as well as an understanding of global cooperation and America’s responsibility as a developed nation towards countries in their developing stages. The richness of the experiences gained during service is the reason why more than 230,000 Americans have served in the Peace Corps. Returning Peace Corps volunteers speak about their experiences and advocate for the program across the country.

Although Peace Corps volunteers are mostly young, with the average volunteer’s age being 28, the program has no age barrier. Some volunteers have served during the span of many decades – both in their youth and in their later years.

On the whole, Peace Corps is a much needed program especially considering the current global political situation. The program shows that diplomacy in action is not a zero-sum game and when the focus is cooperation, it can lead to lasting peace and global development.


Author Information:

Amita Vadlamudi is a prolific blogger on many subjects. Following is the list of some of the web sites that Ms. Vadlamudi publishes to and has a presence on.



The Kindred Lending Hand of the United Nations

United Nations

The United Nations is an international organization which was created in the year 1945, shortly after the end of WW1. The UN was formed consisting of 51 countries in order to encourage resolution of international conflicts without war and to form policies on international issues.

Like the majority of the organizations, the UN was formed to meet certain goals and objectives. The Charter of United Nations is the UN’s governing document.

The UN Charter dictates 4 purposes:

  • Maintain peace and security worldwide
  • Develop strong relations amongst nations
  • Foster cooperation between nations in order to solve economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems of different countries.
  • Providing a forum which would bring countries to meet the goals and purposes of the UN.

History of the United Nations

The predecessor of the UN was the League of Nations. The League of Nations was established during the WW1 in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles (one of the peace of the peace treaties adopted at the end of WW1). Their goal was to encourage cooperation between countries and keep the international peace and security. It was dissolved after it failed to prevent the WW1 and was seen as a failure.

The phrase United Nations was first used by President Franklin D Roosevelt in 1942 when talking about the Declarations by United Nations. The Declaration by United Nations was a pledge by 26 countries to fight together as the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers during World War 2. Two months after the war ended, the representatives of the Allied Powers and 24 other countries met in San Francisco for the conference of United Nations on International Organization. The sole purpose of the conference was to draft the UN charter. On Jun 26, 1951, the United Nations Charter was signed by 51 countries. Shortly after the UN formation, other countries began joining.


The UN was formed to perform a number of functions, some of them being:

Maintaining international peace and security

The UN does this by working to prevent any conflict from occurring in the first place. They help the parties in conflict make peace and create conditions that would allow peace to be held and flourished.

Protecting Human Rights

The promotion and protection of the human rights is the key purpose of the organization. Since 1948 the organization has worked diligently to protect the human rights through legal instruments and on-the-ground activities.

Delivering Aid

The organization helps nations and regions recover and rebuild after they have been affected by disasters.


The author Amita Vadlamudi’s professional profile may be found at her About.me site. Amita Vadlamudi has also published many articles on food and agriculture related topics on her Wix web site.

The Magnanimity of the Red Cross

The Red Cross is an international humanitarian organization. Initially its field of activity was confined to looking after wounded soldiers in wars. They later broadened their activities to the alleviation of all forms of human suffering.

Almost all of the countries have branches of Red Cross which operate during times of war and peace. They operate and provide their aid regardless of color, gender, race, disability, etc. During times of peace, Red Cross is involved in providing first aid, preventing accidents, keeping drinking water free of any harmful chemicals, training nurses and midwives, looking after maternity and childcare centers, establishing hospital and blood banks etc. The organization operates on the fundamental principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, universality, and unity.

The Red Cross usually focuses on three key areas: disaster response and recovery, development, and promoting social inclusion and peace.

Disaster Response and Recovery:

The Red Cross believes in urgent and immediate humanitarian response to disasters by being prepared in risk reduction. This not only saves lives but also is cost effective and builds resilience. Red Cross makes sure that their volunteers are present before, during, and after a crisis. Volunteers are trained to know how best to comfort and support those affected because they are also one of the affected people.


The Red Cross is active in health (including extensive HIV/AIDS programming), water sanitation, and food security. They are also into addressing the humanitarian consequences of climate change, urbanization, violence, and regular and irregular migration.

Promoting Social Inclusion and Peace:

The organization works on making sure that their fundamental principles are being applied on a practical level. They support the integration of disadvantaged people in their communities. They work to remove the bridge that divides people because of religions and cultures.


The Red Cross was founded in the year 1863 in Geneva by five men. It was first named the International Committee for Relief to the Wounded. It was later converted to the International Committee for Relief of the Red Cross. The emblem was a red cross on the white background.

In 1959, when Henry Dunant, a young Swiss banker, came upon a bloody battle scene in Solferino, Italy he was appalled when he saw that at least 40,000 men lay dead or dying on the battlefield without any medical attention. Dunant called upon the local people to form a committee and help the helpless.

When he returned to his homeland he called for a creation of national relief societies to assist those wounded in war and pointed the way to the future Geneva Conventions.

In the later years, the Red Cross organizations started adding more areas for which they devised up aid plans. As of now they have approximately 97 million volunteers and growing.


The author of this article Amita Vadlamudi, a former Computer Software Engineer likes to spend time volunteering in her community. Amita Vadlamudi also supports various charitable organizations including Red Cross which she believes does a very commendable humanitarian work.